Notes-Turtle Mountain


Benton-Banai, Edward. 1979. The Misomish Book: The Voice of the Ojibway. Indian Country Press, Inc.

Bluestone, Rex. 1996. “Native American and a State Senator, LaFountain Has Some Unique Insights.” Native Directions. Vo. 3, No. 2, p. 26.

Camp, Gregory Scott. 1987. The Turtle Mountain Plains-Chippewa and Métis, 1797-1935.

Camp, Gregory Scott. 1984. “The Chippewa Transition from Woodland to Prairie, 1790-1820.” North Dakota History: Journal of the Northern Plains, Vol. 51, Summer 1984, No. 3.

Cree, Francis. 1986. Interview. Dunseith Day School, June.

Charlebois, Peter. 1957. The Life of Louis Riel.

Contu, H. 1980. Lajimodiere and Their Descendants. Edmonton: Coop. Press Limited.

Davis, Carol. 1997. A Study to Address How to Incorporate Information into Courses Transmitted Over Tribal College Distance Learning Networks in North Dakota. Unpublished manuscript.

Densmore, Frances. 1979. Chippewa Customs. Reprint of the 1929 edition. U.S. Government Printing Office.

Delorme, David P. 1955. History of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians.

Friese, Kathy. 1992. “Storyland: A Complex Ancestry and Combination of Cultures Shape Turtle Mountain Life.” North Dakota Horizons, Vo. 22, No. 2.

Gilman, Rhonda and Carolyn, and Deborah M. Stultz. 1979. Red River Trails. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society.

Gourneau J. Charles. (n.d.). Old Wild Rice. Rolla, ND: Star Printing.

Harrison, Julia D. 1985. Métis-People Between Two Worlds. Vancouver/Toronto: The Glenbow Alberta Institute.

Henry, James. 1993. Biography. Turtle Mountain Curriculum Guide. Turtle Mountain Community Schools.

Hickerson, Harold. 1956. The Genesis of a Trading Post Band: The Pembina Chippewa. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University, Ethnohistory, Vol. 3, No. 4.

Howard, James. 1965. “The Plains Ojibwa:With Specific Reference to the Turtle Mountains.” Anthropological Papers, Number 1, The Plains-Ojibwa or Bungi. Published by the South Dakota Museum, University of South Dakota, Vermillion.

Howard, Joseph Kinsey. 1994. Strange Empire. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society.

Jelliff B. Theodore. 1983. North Dakota: A Living Legacy. Fargo, ND: K&K Publishers, Inc.

John Baptise Bottineau. Williams County Plainsman, February 13.

Johnston, Basil. 1979. Ojibway Heritage. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Johnston, Basil. 1979. Legends of the Ojibway. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

Kappler, Charles J. 1972. Indian Laws and Treaties, 1778–1883. Volume 1, 2nd Ed. New York: Interland Publishing, Inc.

MacDonald, J.M. 1991. Undefeated, 300 Years of Ojibwa History. Partone-The Beaver, pp. 28-32, April/May.

McKee, S. 1973. Gabriel Dumont, Indian Fighter. Aldergrove, British Columbia: Frontier Publishing Ltd.

McLean, D. 1987. Home from the Hill. Edmonton: Gabriel Dumont Institute.

Monette, Gerald. 1995. Follow-up Study of the Graduates of an American Indian Tribally Controlled Community College. Unpublished Dissertation. North Dakota: University of North Dakota.

Monette, Richard. 1994. “A New Federalism for Indian Tribes: The Relationship Between the United States and Tribes in Light of our Federalism and Republican Democracy.” Ohio: University of Toledo Law Review, 25(3), p. 617-672).

Murray, N. Stanley. 1984. North Dakota History: Journal of the Northern Plains. Vol. 51, No. 1.

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Pevar, Stephen L. 1995. The Rights of Indians and Tribes. American Civil Liberties Union. Illinois: Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville.

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Schneider, Mary Jane. 1994. North Dakota Indians: An Introduction. Dubuque: Kendall Hunt Publishing Co., Second Edition.

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Tribal Government Curriculum Committee. 1992. Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Tribal Government Curriculum, January.

Turtle Mountain Curriculum Committee. 1991. Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Tribal Government Curriculum.

Utter, Jack. 1993. American Indians: The Answers to Today’s Questions. Lake Ann, MI: National Woodlands Publishing Company.

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Wanna, Edward. 1992. Interview with Jimmy Greatwalker. Dunseith, ND.


Report on Service Population and Labor Force, United States Department of Interior - Bureau of Indian Affairs, 1997.

Trottier, Charles, & Hall, Alice, Ed. 1995. Overall Economic Development Plan. Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa.


Act of Congress, 1892, July 13. Chapter 164, p. 139, 1st Session.

Report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 1897. Northern Agency.

Senate Document No. 229, 54th Congress, 1st Session.

Senate Document No. 239, 54th Congress, 1st Session.

Senate Document No. 444, 56th Congress, 1st Session.


These online materials are intended to serve as a resource about the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, from their origin to contemporary society. Written in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Community College and the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, the material presents a generalized overview about the history and culture of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa for teachers, students, and the general public of North Dakota. This is done with the hope that readers will develop a better understanding of the Chippewa people and their role in the history of North Dakota.

Many people have assisted in gathering, researching, processing, and editing the information used in the development of these resources.


This curriculum for The History and Culture of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa was originally organized by Cheryl M. Kulas, former Director of Indian Education at the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. Cheryl Kulas also served as the Executive Director of the North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission, 2001–2009.

In 2009, the North Dakota Studies Program and the North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission collaborated to make these curriculum resources available in an online format at North Dakota Studies.


Patricia F. Poitra and Karen L. Poitra


The following are only a few who assisted in making this effort a reality: Evelyn LaVallie, Janice Poitra, Lillian M. Keplin, June Parisien, Chistine Knight, Dorothy Baumgartner, Theresa M. Davis, Denise Lajimodiere, Rose Grimson, ReNae L. BearKing, Chris Cahill, Jean Bonn, Kay Bercier, Dorothy Allery, Joyce Morin, Peggy Keplin, Terri LaFromboise, Delcie Jerome, Ed Wanna, Patricia and Karen Poitra.

Special recognition is given to the work done previously by the Tribal Government Curriculum Committee, in the writing of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Tribal Government Resource Guide and to the staff at the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Heritage Center: Gayleen Martin, Rita DeCoteau, Les Lafountain, and Stella Davis.


Several people helped by reading and editing the chapters written and offering suggestions and helpful advice. Carol Ann Davis, Les Lafountain, Dennis (Badger) DeMontigny, Dave Ripley, Jaclynn Davis Wallette, Beverly Parisien, Irene Davis, and Rose Wilkie.

A special acknowledgment is extended to Denise Lajimodiere for her assistance in the historical writing, gathering of resources, and expertise in the development of this project. Carol Davis is to be acknowledged for her enthusiasm and tenacity in maintaining the integrity of the history of Chippewa people throughout the life of this project.

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