North Dakota Government site North Dakota Tourism site


These online materials are intended to serve as a resource about the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa, from their origin to contemporary society. Written in cooperation with the Turtle Mountain Community College and the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction, the material presents a generalized overview about the history and culture of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa for teachers, students, and the general public of North Dakota. This is done with the hope that readers will develop a better understanding of the Chippewa people and their role in the history of North Dakota.

Many people have assisted in gathering, researching, processing, and editing the information used in the development of these resources.


This curriculum for The History and Culture of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa was originally organized by Cheryl M. Kulas, former Director of Indian Education at the North Dakota Department of Public Instruction. Cheryl Kulas also served as the Executive Director of the North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission, 2001–2009.

In 2009, the North Dakota Studies Program and the North Dakota Indian Affairs Commission collaborated to make these curriculum resources available in an online format at North Dakota Studies.

  • Neil Howe, North Dakota Studies Program Coordinator
  • Cassie Theurer, Web Designer


Patricia F. Poitra and Karen L. Poitra


The following are only a few who assisted in making this effort a reality: Evelyn LaVallie, Janice Poitra, Lillian M. Keplin, June Parisien, Chistine Knight, Dorothy Baumgartner, Theresa M. Davis, Denise Lajimodiere, Rose Grimson, ReNae L. BearKing, Chris Cahill, Jean Bonn, Kay Bercier, Dorothy Allery, Joyce Morin, Peggy Keplin, Terri LaFromboise, Delcie Jerome, Ed Wanna, Patricia and Karen Poitra.

Special recognition is given to the work done previously by the Tribal Government Curriculum Committee, in the writing of the Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Tribal Government Resource Guide and to the staff at the Turtle Mountain Chippewa Heritage Center: Gayleen Martin, Rita DeCoteau, Les Lafountain, and Stella Davis.


Several people helped by reading and editing the chapters written and offering suggestions and helpful advice. Carol Ann Davis, Les Lafountain, Dennis (Badger) DeMontigny, Dave Ripley, Jaclynn Davis Wallette, Beverly Parisien, Irene Davis, and Rose Wilkie.

A special acknowledgment is extended to Denise Lajimodiere for her assistance in the historical writing, gathering of resources, and expertise in the development of this project. Carol Davis is to be acknowledged for her enthusiasm and tenacity in maintaining the integrity of the history of Chippewa people throughout the life of this project.